Turkey, having historical links with ancient civilizations, has also to face many problems, under the influence of both natural and social factors, as regards the preservation of its historic environment. The country tried at first to develop legislation that regulates public intervention to protect primarily the urban architectural heritage, taking measures at national, regional and local level. The fundamental laws regarding the protection of cultural heritage coincide with periods of political and economic change, while the country, in the recent years, has started taking steps towards achieving a modern legal framework, concerning protection, commensurate with the European one. Nowadays, all activities concerning protection, planning, management and preservation of cultural and natural heritage, are carried out under the guidelines established by the Legislation about Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritage and the Principles of the Supreme and Regional Councils of Conservation / Maintenance. The country, today, is in transitional stage and the attempt to balance tradition and modernization leads to a cultural dualism, which is evident in all aspects of life and often associated with westernization and acceptance or rejection of Ottoman and Islamic elements. This paper targets to record and evaluate the institutional framework and policies on the management of cultural and architectural heritage in contemporary Turkey.