The conviction that the educational system reflects the interests of the ruling classes and serves their ideology, drives to the conclusion that any changes to the educational system derive from other general changes in the society, especially concerning the economy and the politics. As a result, the directions of the educational changes depend on the social forces, their power and their relation at any time. An example that has been ignored from the projects concerning the Greek educational system is the changes in the primary school, which took place between 1878 and 1880. The present project searches through the changes in the primary school at the period that has been preannounced, especially as far as the method of teaching, the structure and the contents of teaching and the level of teachers’ education are concerned. All these are related to the changes that took place and the demands that are formed in the society at that period. Such changes are the economic development and the need of improvement of the professional skills of the people through education, the political development and the need of improvement of the level of people’s education, in order to use rationally their political liberties and finally, the problems concerning ethnical issues and the need of reinforcing the ethnical conscience of the citizens.