Language & Literature

Thematic strand: Language & Literature

Alexandra Prentza: Null subjects in advanced L2 English: the regularization of an apparent irregularity


This paper examines the proposal that syntactic features not instantiated in L1 are unavailable to L2 learners, while semantic ones are available and used in a compensatory way (Tsimpli & Dimitrakopoulou 2007). On this assumption, the (over)use of null subjects in L2 English will be not random, but constrained by any relevant semantic features, as the study of Prentza & Tsimpli (in press) on advanced L2 grammars has suggested. Null subject availability distinguishes between Greek and English and follows from a difference in syntactic features. The semantic feature targeted here is referentiality of the subject, i.e. whether this is referential or expletive. Aiming to test the performance of very advanced learners, a judgement task was administered to 37 advanced and 12 very advanced learners, as well as to 25 English natives. The results showed that the very advanced group accepted significantly more null subjects than the controls. Crucially, omission was significantly higher when the subjects were expletive than referential. Thus, in very advanced grammars as well i) syntactic features are inaccessible leading to target-deviant performance ii) the semantic feature of Referentiality is accessible and has a compensatory role regulating L2 null subject use and eliminating real optionality from the system.



Alexandros N. Akritopoulos: Seven Languages one Poem: Poetry as Leaven for multi / intercultural Education

It’s well known that the folk-song, the ballade “Tou nekrou adelfou” in Greek version, is a common property in Balkan’s peoples culture. Nowadays, we all have experienced that multicultural and intercultural education means different things to different people. In our presentation we intend to show how Poetry could be used as leaven for multi/intercultural education.
The inter-textual approach of this teaching material (Seven Languages one Poem, that is to say different national languages but one international poem) will provide us a model or a frame for multi/intercultural education. The historical and geographical context, which is reflected in the main theme of the poem, is this in which Balkan’s peoples live, that is to say work and live in a foreign country.
The main goals will be: Outline common thoughts and feelings of Balkan’s peoples in common historical situations that cross national borders: living abroad, living in family, love of family’s members. Accept otherness (cultural pluralism). Subvert, in schools of Balkan’s countries and in all over the world, the strong feeling of “xenitia” and convert it into feeling of “xenia”, because of neighborhood and common cultural conditions, values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours but also now because of the mondialisation of the economy. 

Angeliki Sakellariou: Genre based language teaching

The genre based approach is an epiphenomenon of the communicative approach. The text becomes the centre of teaching, not just the pretext for teaching grammatical phenomena. Students must come into contact with a great number of text types (which are usually produced by mixing different genres) in order to acquire the necessary literacy that will enable them to fulfill the requirements of school and furthermore of their professional and social life. In this paper an application of this approach is presented based on the use of electronic corpora.

Ardjana Braja, Hasim Braja: The important elements to evaluate writing in foreign language

The long teaching experience of a foreign language, the contact with many teachers of foreign language, the observations in many different schools have deeply increased our belief that the practices to evaluate the skills in writing in Albania are far from those suggested by the researchers and studies in this field nowadays. The workshop intends to answer these questions: Which are the main problems in writing in a foreign language? How much it affects the clearness of the questions, teaching, the preciseness of the criteria in the correction and the evaluation in the results of the writing? Which are the causes that are linked with the correction and the evaluation of the written tasks in Albanian schools? The workshop is concentrated in a specific way in the high schools of Albania whose characteristics reflect more this problem. The results of this workshop will help the teachers to improve evaluation and teaching activities, and even the methodologists to define the most efficient methodology to improve the skills of writing in a foreign language.

Argiris Archakis, Anna Fterniati, Dimitris Papazachariou, Villy Tsakona & Vasia Tsami: Mapping elementary school students’ preferences for mass cultural literacy practices

The aim of the present study is to explore students’ preferences in literacy practices related to mass cultural texts. It focuses on Greek elementary school students of the 5th and 6th grade (11-12 year-olds) in an effort to map their favorite mass cultural genres and to explore whether social parameters such as gender, ethnic and social background, and school performance influence such preferences. The data of the study was collected via questionnaires from 5 public elementary schools in the prefecture of Achaia, Greece. The findings of the study indicate that students show a clear preference for mass cultural texts which involve moving images, oral and written discourse, and music, while they enjoy less those which involve only written discourse and still images. Their preferences may be (but are not always) correlated with their gender, ethnic and social background, and school records. Hence, textbooks and language teaching in general could benefit from the exploitation of multimodal mass cultural texts to cultivate students’ literacy skills and involvement in language courses.

Byron Pissalidis: Interculturality and Religion in literary texts. An Approach to Intercultural Communication Methodology

The religious issue is pervasive in every piece of L.Sciascia and G.Ioannou literary works. They criticize, condemn, accept, and experience, they perpetually experience. They show a religious concern, torture, eroticism, in quest of the truth. The church and its representatives, its types and its power are everywhere and deeply concern us. What we are looking for is its real face, that is, the face that will not cause an aversion.
L. Sciascia is seeking God in art, in the mysteries of mind, in politics. He surrenders the body somewhere else. G. Ioannou also does the same thing with his body, love, and situations that are equally torturing and monastic.
They are writers with special temperaments, with memory and knowledge who stiflingly experienced the systems of that period, from a very tender age. They experienced, recorded, criticized, and condemned with responsibility the religious, social and political formations such as Sunday Schools, the Second World War, the Civil War in Greece and the big migratory wave in Italy respectively.
Palermo and Thessaloniki, the Italian South and the Greek North, Greece and Magna Grecia meet in the subways, in the complex places of the Catholic monasteries and in the rationalism of the Western Church, in the orthodox churches and also in the mystical forms of the Byzantine icons. Memory, religion and history are the materials of their art.
The research that follows is considered to be a first approach, an analysis of the modern religious reality and of the way in which this reality is filtered in literature, in an intercultural approach, by illuminating some of the aspects of the issue.

Dora Chostelidou: Integrating Task-based and Content and Language Integrated Learning in ESP Course Design

The aim of the present study is to describe the effect of combining TBL (Task-Based Learning) and CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) in the development of an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course designed for students majoring in Accountancy. A multi-method approach which involved both quantitative and qualitative research methods was adopted. In addition, experimental research design which involved pre- and post-testing was employed. The data provided support for the efficacy of the suggested approach to course design and indicated that there is an inherent connection between ESP and TBL and CLIL.

Elizabeta Ralpovska: Linguistic metaphor and the names of colours

Metaphor is a principal and primary lexical means by which the lexical-semantic group with the meaning colour develops and is enriched with new lexical units. The ability to language recording of the expressed diversity of the world that surrounds man lies in the associative and analogical connection between different concepts and objects with impressively attractive and original colour and language elements that act as carriers of the property colour. The similarity between the concept and its language identifier is at the extent to absoluteness. Our interest will be directed towards discovering such absoluteness among international words that are commonly accepted names of colours.

Fabiola Kadi: Religious Poetry, its Influence and Perception by Present Day Readers

This topic, in the era of materialism and relativism, has been frequently neglected in literary studies. The study is based on two well-known French Christian poets, who were extraordinary personalities of French literature: Paul Claudel, Charles Péguy and the way they are perceived in our days.  It also provides information on the poetry appreciation of these two poets from many literary critics, poets, as well as atheist literary critics.
Based on these analyses, we conclude that poetry with religious themes not only has great esthetic value, but it is worthy of our attention.
As a special sort of poetry, we are of the opinion that it shouldn’t be read and studied only by religious people. Nowadays, man's life is changing rapidly, there is no security, the problems and misfortunes are often greater than the joys and happy moments. We, as readers and students, need to find another reality in the religious poetry, different from what we face every day. Our aim is to emphasize the fact that religious poetry should be read and studied in our schools, in our colleges and in our universities. It enables us to judge things differently, in order to throw light on the darkness of bad moments, encouraging people to hope and see their future positively and optimistically.


Vocabulary development and acquisition have always been one of the core activities in foreign language learning, whether it is for general purposes or for specific/ academic ones (Swales, 1983).
For this reason, this paper makes an attempt to present an alternative way of approaching vocabulary instruction within a Greek ESP context through a computer software (concordancer), which analyzes electronically gathered reading texts (corpora) for the discovery of regular patterns and lexical sets, an approach called Data-Driven Learning (DDL). 
This pilot study took place at the University of Western Macedonia, Pedagogical Faculty, Department of Primary education, Florina, Greece.  Before implementing this pilot project 40 students’ needs were identified by using a questionnaire exploring their difficulties, deficiencies and teaching preferences related to all four skills in learning vocabulary.  In DDL (Tim John’s coinage) the learning process is no longer based solely on the teachers’ initiative and the explicit teaching of rules, but on the learner's own discovery of rules, principles and patterns of usage in the foreign language, so learning is driven by authentic language data.
The specific approach proved to be quite promising, since the use of technology contributed to simulating students’ motivation as well as to developing academic vocabulary.

Geladari Athina, Griva Eleni, Stamou Anastasia: Student-teachers’ beliefs about linguistic and cognitive development in bilingual primary school students

The present study aimed at recording Greek student teachers’ beliefs in relation to bilingualism and their views on linguistic and cognitive development of bilingual immigrant students who attend Greek primary schools. The sample consisted of 64 fourth year students of the Department of Primary Education of the University of Western Macedonia and Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The basic research instrument was semi-structured interviews including open questions which were organized into the following thematic strands: a) defining bilingualism, b) factors affecting bilingualism, c) cognitive and linguistic development of bilingual students, d) differences between monolingual and bilingual students’ linguistic competence and cognitive/academic performance, e) educational/teaching methods and techniques. The data were analyzed qualitatively based on: a) the Miles and Huberman framework of analysis; b) the Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis. The findings of the study revealed student-teachers’ misconceptions about certain issues concerning bilingualism and academic and linguistic performance.

Georgia Andreou, Fotini Anastassiou: Multilingualism and language learning: The case of Greek-Albanian children learning English as a third language

The importance of multilingualism has been acknowledged in the past years and nowadays more and more research is being conducted on the acquisition and learning of a third language (L3). This is mainly because of the vast mobility of populations between countries and mixed marriages (Barnes 2005). Since multilinguals are far more compared to monolinguals in the world (Tucker 1998) it is just as important to investigate the way bilinguals use their languages while still in the process of learning their third language.
The research presented aims to investigate those factors which may affect the production of speech while children, from an immigrant background, narrate in their third language, in this case English. Greek or Albanian is either their first or second language. The children’s vocabulary interaction is being analyzed, aiming to locate possible language dominance issues, the influence of L1 or L2 in the production of L3 and the source language of cross-linguistic influence.

Griva Eleni, Iliadou-Tahou Sofia and Maggou Angeliki: Developing materials for teaching Greek as a foreign language to young learners


The aim of this paper is to present a project for teaching Greek as a foreign language. For the purpose of the project, user friendly materials and tasks were developed, based on learners’ individual needs. The materials were contextualized to the experiences of the specific groups of learners, which were examined through a needs identification instrument, before the implementation of the project.  In addition, the materials were contextualized to topics and themes that provide meaningful and purposeful uses for the target language. Every unit was designed to offer opportunities for integrated language skills development, as well as to offer a variety of situations, nations and functions and to provide opportunities for self-evaluation.  Every unit was taught through three basic stages: a) the pre-stage, which was the stage of activating young learners’ prior knowledge, stimulating their motivation and familiarizing them with the vocabulary of the unit; b) the while stage: the students were engaged in text reading and comprehension, as well as performing vocabulary activities; c) the post-stage: in this stage, the students were involved in writing and speaking-interactive activities, such as   pantomime and role-play games.



Jonela Spaho: Some teaching methods of child literature that enhances students’ desire for reading and creative skills

Children’s literature is that kind of literature written for young people to educate them with ethical, artistic and aesthetic feelings. Nowadays, because of the massive information they gain through the Internet, mass media, cinematography etc. it is noticed that artistic literature reading by students of the 9-th grade has significantly dropped. The amount of information provided from social, scientific and technological development has led to the decrease of their desire to read artistic literature. Hence, it is the duty of the teachers to stimulate a child into making artistic literature reading a habit. Teachers should feel and experience children’s literature deeply so they can penetrate into their world, wishes and passions and be able to incite their desire to read.
This paper aims to present some effective teaching methods on children’s literature that can be used by our future teachers in order to instill the love and desire for reading.  Among these methods are: the process of selecting literature work that mostly affect the child’s nature; focus on some aspects of building the fable and plot in works which arouse reading curiosity and habit, the analysis of technical and artistic components in literature masterpieces written for children consider the models of creating literature work ; to enable their reading at any time; the way that the message is interpreted etc. By using these methods, the capable and passionate teacher can successfully achieve his goal.

Kapravelou Alexia: Multicultural education in schools: principles and general implications in language teaching

In this review proposal I shall present the main social principles and general language teaching implications of multicultural school education. Language socialization is a dynamic process of interaction during life, as people participate in modern societies, define and redefine themselves according to their new roles and either agree or resist to roles formed by others. Education and learning is set in real human expectations, hopes, and outlooks, and in the expression of emotions through individual and collective ways of studying. According to critical pedagogy of Paulo Freire, every student carries his/her living language and culture in class. During teaching, pupils are encouraged to use their first language, so that they will not be alienated from their own cultural contexts. The educator searches, discusses and learns together with the students. Aiming at cultivating social relations in class, teachers may organize activities, such as team-work projects interchanging knowledge and experiences, and they may offer chances for round-table dialogue between school and students’ families.
These initiatives help develop stability and safety, necessary variables for success in second/foreign language teaching. Deepening language study, teachers and students may explore the social and political meaning of literacy, which derives from the social division of labour and the inequalities, such as gender, racial, ethnic, etc., so that a useful discussion about language classism, racism and sexism could start. Teachers encourage immigrant children’s participation, if they communicate more openly, set questions to pupils about themselves and their life, understand them, do not embarrass them, do not themselves or they do not allow others ignore their students.

Katerina Katsika: Implementation of wiki projects in the foreign language classroom

The implementation of web 2.0 tools in the foreign language (FL) classroom contributes to contemporary, active and experiential learning. The prominent feature that characterizes web 2.0 applications is the notion of “interactivity”. Rather than simply receiving information, the user is able to create, form and share the digital content with other users. Wikis constitute a prime example of learner generated material that can be integrated in the FL classroom.
The present paper intents to explore the different ways in which wikis can be integrated in the teaching/learning process in order to enhance language learning and teaching. In the first place, we provide a short explanation of how a wiki software works. In the second place, emphasis is given to the paradigms of constructivism, cooperative learning, connectivism, action-based learning and task-based learning that are supported by the usage of wikis in the classroom. In addition, the present paper proposes a variety of collaborative on-line wiki projects that can be used to the best interest of both learners and teachers. Finally, the benefits of implementing wiki projects in the FL classroom are analyzed.

Katerina Maroniti, Anastasia G. Stamou, Konstantinos Dinas, Eleni Griva: Tracing (dis)continuities between children’s literacy practices at home and in the kindergarten: A case study

Several studies have identified the central role of mass cultural and media texts in the shaping of young children’s out-of-school literacy practices (e.g. Browne 1999, Marsh & Thompson 2001). Although it is often supported that early childhood educators need to take account of the home literacy practices of their students, they tend to be negatively disposed towards mass culture, expressing concerns about its content and educational value (e.g. Dyson 1997, Seiter 1999), and thus the sociocultural experiences which are closest to the child are rarely included in the literacy events he/she participates in the nursery (e.g. Dyson 2001, Marsh 2000a, 2000b). As a result, a dissonance between out-of-school and schooled literacy practices of children is often detected, with important consequences especially for those coming from the lower socio-economic strata.
Focusing on the kindergarten of a socially uprivileged suburb of Thessaloniki (Diavata), we explore young children’s (aged 5-6 years old) access to and use of mass culture and media at home and in the nursery as well as teachers’ perspectives about the use of mass cultural and media resources in early childhood settings. Qualitative data were collected from a range of sources, including semi-structured interviews with children and teachers, questionnaires with parents and unstructured observations in the kindergarten classroom. Results indicate that children’s literacy practices at home were focused on television, whereas in the kindergarten a focus was given on the reading of books with scientific, mythological or religious content. Teachers were found ambivalent about the inclusion of mass culture at school, while parents tended to under-report their children’s use of mass cultural texts at home.

Konstantinidou Eleni, Griva Eleni, Stamou Anastasia: Immigrant parents’ views on their children’s linguistic, cognitive and social development

The aim of this study was to record Albanian parents’ views on their children’s L1 (first language) and L2 (second language) development as well as the role of primary school on their children’s cognitive and social development. Moreover, an attempt was made to explore parents’ attitudes towards their involvement in their children’s in-school and out-of-school activities as well as their stance on their collaboration with school community. 40 immigrant parents of Albanian origin living in the wider area of Florina participated in the study. Their views were recorded via semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed qualitatively based on: a) the Miles and Huberman’s analysis framework, b) the Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis.

Konstantinos Kalemis: Literacy across the curriculum for the bilingual students in primary education today

Intercultural bilingual education (IBE) or bilingual intercultural education (BIE) is an intercultural and bilingual model of education designed for contexts with two (or more) cultures and languages in contact, in the typical case a dominant and an underprivileged culture. The IBE could be applied in almost any country in the world; however, it is discussed and also applied above all in Latin America, where it has been offered to indigenous people as an alternative to monolingual Hispanic education due to the efforts of indigenous movements. In recent years, it has become an important, more or less successful instrument of governmental language planning in several Latin American countries, as has been described for the case of Quechua in Peru. Will the early learning of a second language delay a child’s language development? Research has shown that bilingual children do, indeed, lag behind their monolingual peers in acquiring language, and that bilingual children display language patterns similar to monolingual language-impaired children. In particular, research that compared monolingual children with language impairment and typical second-language learners demonstrated that these two groups made similar kinds of errors in their expressive language and grammatical morphology.
Over time, bilingual children learn the differing rules governing each language. When bilingual children use cues such as word order to process and produce both languages, they come to learn how cues work within and between two languages, thereby creating a system of cues that differ from monolinguals. In short, bilingual children follow a different course of language development than monolingual children.

Korosidou Eleni: Implementing Project-based Learning in an EFL Class: Process and Evaluation

The present paper outlines the design and implementation process of a pilot EFL (English as a Foreign Language) project, which integrates content and language learning. Over the last years, an interest has spread to EFL classrooms around the world regarding Content Based Instruction (CBI), which “refers to the concurrent teaching of academic subject matter and second language skills” (Brinton et al, 1989, p. 2). CBI integrates foreign language with content learning, putting great emphasis on learning about something rather than learning about language. In such a context, where learners’ needs and interests are put in the center of the learning process, learners are provided with a variety of opportunities for stimulating motivation and expressing themselves creatively while learning English at the same time.
The purpose of the project implemented was to develop young learners’ language skills in English, through integrating English language learning with another subject- Geography. The project was piloted in two fifth grade (5th) classrooms of a Greek primary school. The results of the intervention project indicated the positive effects of the project on students’ oral and written skills and their attitude towards foreign language learning.

Kotopoulos H. Triantafyllos, Chagianni Aggeliki, Papantonakis Georgios: Seeking for traces of Greek culture in the fictional world of Harry Potter

The world-wide Harry Potter phenomenon concerns in a critical level many Literature’s approved researchers and scientists. The relative studies that were worked out are innumerable and they cover a wide range of the literary analysis’ discipline fields. In our study we will try to find out and show off the infiltration of the Greek culture and heritage in the origin of the names, in the presentation of the characters and the magic attributes that characterize them that are included organically in the plot of the ultimate fictions Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince and Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. All of them demarcate a field of research, which examines if Rowling as a writer proceeded consciously in the embodiment of these elements or they were included in the context of a wider humanitarian culture that penetrates unconsciously in the contemporary literary texts.

Kotopoulos H. Triantafyllos, Papantonakis Georgios, Nanou Vassiliki: Creative Writing, Suspenseful Literature and Excited Students

Teachers struggle daily to get their students interested in the literary texts they have to read for their classes. As the current situation poses several encumbrances in the form of curriculum norms, students’ disinterest, limited school time and out-dated course books, we propose the insertion of Creative Writing into the teaching of Literature and explore its prospective use in the classroom. We suggest that the particular use of suspenseful Literature, through the teaching of its notions of suspense and cliff-hanger and its techniques, has the ability to transform the classroom into a reading community, where the children will be intrigued enough to read suspenseful literary texts, analyse their meanings and story evolution and finally create their own stories, based on what they have learned. Such a module outline is presented in the end.


This paper discusses the findings of a study recently undertaken to investigate the students’ perceptions on grammar instruction at the English Department of the Faculty of Philology and Education of “Fan S. Noli” University in Albania with the purpose of considering them in teaching the English grammar. The paper presents the general organization of the grammar courses of English department of ‘Fan S. Noli’ University and students’ views on the importance of grammar for an accurate written and spoken use of language, and on the pedagogy of grammar. The results obtained indicate that the students value grammar in their study of English. Their assessment of the grammar courses is positive. Theoretical and practical approaches to grammar study are highly rated.


The development of the verbal categories associated with the relationship between the speaker and the information conveyed through the message, i.e., the verb forms such as the Albanian admirative and the renarration in the Macedonian language, which are viewed as the grammatical opposition of subordination / coordination, have never been considered in the classical catalogue of balkanisms. Apart from this, in comparison with the more obvious occurrences, such as the definite particle, the morphology of the future, as well as the numbers, this grammatical category is more subtle and more difficult to determine. This is proved by the fact that in the beginnings of the modern tradition of the Albanian and Macedonian language grammar these forms and meanings have not been recorded, whereas there is a development of an immense secondary literature related to these problems. The Albanian admirative and similar occurrences in the Slavic languages are more typical of the spoken language than the written language, especially in the formal and narrative styles.
The Albanian language, maybe more than any other European language, has been regarded throughout the centuries as the most vital part of the people’s endurance, as an expression of the culture, but also as an identifier of their being. The well-known researcher from Kosovo, Rexhep Ismajli says that the language is sometimes absolute and identified with the being, and sometimes considered as a function of the human kind among the many other functions being performed in the life of a society.

Lulzim Ademi: Bilinguism among Albanians advantage or disadvantage for preschool children

In this article the object of study are the English and Albanian idioms from the structural, semantic, grammatical & lexical point of view. By idioms it is meant the use of words which is peculiar to a particular language. In both languages non-motivated word-groups are described as phraseological units or idioms: red flower – motivated; red tape – non-motivated (democratic method); heavy weight – motivated; heavy weight – non-motivated (serious part in a theatrical play); ia kreh floket – motivated; ia kreh bishtin – non-motivated (say nice things to sb. just to please him/her).
According to Noah Webster's dictionary an idiom is defined as: 1) a peculiar way of saying something which has become established after long use. 2) an expression whose meaning cannot be predicted from the usual meanings of its constituent elements. 3) a style of artistic expression characteristic of a particular individual, school, period or medium.



The marvelous has always been the core of plenty of artful books, exciting the reader to delimitate whether the fantastic element in the text may have its own real explanation. This paper is orientated towards the fairytales as the closest genre to the marvelous, and its objective is first, to distinguish between the perceiving and encountering of the fairytales by both the children and the adults and then to indicate the aspects of how the power of the miraculous in the fairytales is used for educative and commercial purposes. Pointing to these supernatural, stunning marvelous elements and their influence on the children’s fantasy, the paper combines a brief analyses of the fairytales of the Grimm brothers to the following issues: the confirmation of the fantastic and magic elements in the fairytales and the development of the imagination of children based upon the influence of the media; the moral message from the fables; how adults should narrate the fairytales to the children in order to keep their attention and make them think of wonders? The results of the research regarding the children’s interests, daydreams and fancies which point to imaginative ideas for the future adaptations and writing of the fairytales are presented in the paper.

Nereida Panolli: An eye on English and Albanian idioms as an essential part of these languages

In this article the object of study are the English and Albanian idioms from the structural, semantic, grammatical & lexical point of view. By idioms it is meant the use of words which is peculiar to a particular language. In both languages non-motivated word-groups are described as phraseological units or idioms: red flower – motivated; red tape – non-motivated (democratic method); heavy weight – motivated; heavy weight – non-motivated (serious part in a theatrical play); ia kreh floket – motivated; ia kreh bishtin – non-motivated (say nice things to sb. just to please him/her).
According to Noah Webster's dictionary an idiom is defined as: 1) a peculiar way of saying something which has become established after long use. 2) an expression whose meaning cannot be predicted from the usual meanings of its constituent elements. 3) a style of artistic expression characteristic of a particular individual, school, period or medium.

Pavllo Cicko, Mihallaq Zilexhiu, Suela Koça: How to organize complex learning activities with students in order to enhance their performance in French

Introduction of learning activities are materialized in different didactical units and their order. The goals aimed through these activities are different. They are closely connected to the linguistic communicative content, learning and teaching.
In our paper we will treat the relation or rapport between the selection of such activities with the concept of learning. The role of these activities will be considered within the frame of communicative method of teaching.
In the paper a very important part will be covered by a thorough didactical analysis of some activities presented in the book ‘Sans frontiers’ and ‘Cartes sur table’ and several operations that will be used for their application. The students’ expectations will be taken into consideration and their skills will be stimulated in order to realize the complex character of learning activities. All these will accomplish the realization another crucial demand of the learning process. This will have its impact on the success of pedagogical activity inside the class and out of it.


Through the work of Visar Zhiti discovered that nothing resists it human qualities. Dirty books that Albanian sweeten reality prior to 1990, is not considered immoral, because they lacked the real, was not embraced as nihilistic and not doctrine of Augustine. The purpose of this study is an exploration of novels The Streets of Hell and The Hell Slot, where the author leaves behind function, provides resounding literary discourse to specific environments, which differentiates to create within his body, with indirect impact on its structure. Through its core enabled the preservation of truth, beauty. Observes that expressing through subjektives, forging personal aesthetics as it is. The true art is more valuable than the ordinary real life, well being extraordinarily articulate, imaginative, which in reality where he was strongest survived.
Suffered and suffers keenly, because to the present time is imprisoned in the wounds of the past, feels the pain of another disaster, the tragic, who said even to those who martyred. Forgive and takes a fraction of the pain and distress to those who injured him and obscured his life.
Entry into the dark recesses of human life and meaning to, wanting an explanation of the unknown, as an essence of art in general. The article brings in poetry and interpretation assistance.

Sashka Dimitrovska: Dedicated to the use of literature forms in the English Language Schoolbooks


This paper reports on the using literature forms in English language schoolbooks. It aims to show that “Using Literature forms in the English Language schoolbooks” is a concept that has its focal point in language development. Also, any syllabus based on this concept should also maintain language as the central concern. For this, it is imperative that curriculum developers depart from the traditional view attached to literature. It is also equally important that the syllabus has suggestions for teaching strategies and forms of assessment. The objectives may outline the importance of literature towards language development, but they become redundant if the teaching and assessment techniques do not apply those objectives practically. The first part of the paper  expounds on the perceived goals of the process of using  the literature materials. The second section focuses on the effects of teacher’s development.

Tatiana Zouravleva, Kleio Markou, Alexandros Nikolaidis & Anthi Revithiadou: Placement test for Russian as a mother tongue: Design and application

This paper presents a placement test constructed for foreigner and repatriated students who study in Greek elementary schools (4th-6th grades) and Gymnasiums (1st & 2nd grades) and have Russian as a mother tongue. We describe the pedagogical and linguistic philosophy that underline its design and report on the results of its first application to 140 students in the academic year 2011-2012.

Tr. Kotopoulos, El. Solaki, An. Alevriadou, M. Solaki: Borders and representations of heroes with disabilities in the books of Ev. Trivizas

The established power in Foucauldian terms allows us to analyze the “borders and representations of heroes with disabilities” in fairytales and juvenile literature. In the health field, a number of nursing educators and sociologist discussed a variety of topics relating to old age and nursing homes, the status of nurses as professionals, the conflict between medicine and midwifery, intellectual disability and sexuality, AIDS, the history of hygiene education as well as issues of public health and lifestyle. Just like gender, race and class, disability has become a standard analytical category in the historian’s tool chest nowadays. Up until now Paul Longmore and Lauri Umansky’s book ‘The New disability history: American perspectives” (2001) still provides the most thoughtful introduction to the burgeoning field. This aspect is based on the social-constructivist approach of history and closely connected to the ongoing emancipatory processes of persons with disabilities all over the world. We use post-modernist philosophies and theories of history in order to deal with the problematic feature of ‘identity’ in current disability theory. This research focuses on the heroes with disabilities as they are represented in the stories for children (fairytales and juvenile literature) written by Eugene Trivizas. The researching material consists of the books:
1.      The bald hedgehog {O falakros skantzoxoiros} (1996). Athens: Kedros.
2.      The little disappointed elephant {To paraponemeno elefantaki} (1996). Athens: Kedros.
3.      The ill rooster {O sunaxomenos kokoras} (2002). Athens: Kedros.
4.      The three fancy ribbons {Oi treis apokriatikes kordeles} (2002). Athens: Patakis.
5.       Ildoyardos Sarapasnip (unpublished).
6.      The pirates of chimney {Oi peirates tis kaminadas} (1997). Athens: Psyhogios.
7.      The last black cat {H teleutaia mauri gata} (2001). Athens: Ellinika Grammata.


Vagelis Galanis, Mimis Souliotis, Anastasia Alevriadou: The representation of madness in modern

We will be making an effort to decode the representation of madness in modern Greek short stories, in the field of fiction, both in terms of “exclusion” and “otherness”. The study of the representation of madness in literature is included in the subject of study of “otherness” in education, in conditions of multiculturalism, in prospect of eliminating discrimination by implementing policies that will make visible, fair and legitimate the expression of the “different” and “minority”. The research method used is a qualitative content analysis. The research material consists of twenty-eight short stories (published between 1884 and 1995). They have been classified in four conceptual categories: (a) etiology/ interpretation of madness, (b) symptoms, (c) phenomenology of madness, (d) “Eutopia” and “Dystopia” of madness. Our key research questions are: (a) static or non-representation of madness (b) marginalization, inclusion or exclusion of the madmen (c) presence of stereotypical behavior and characteristics in its appearance and (d) deconstruction of the social representation of madness in fiction, undermine or otherwise of the registration of otherness. Our final comments are summarized as follows: (a) the madness of the multiple connotations, as a degeneration of logic (fixation, stagnation, regression, infancy) or as a super-truth (surreal version), ends up in a meaningful “void”, on which are projected our primitive fears and worries about normality and deviation, and (b) the fiction (short story), trapped in a “compulsive” realism that does not manage to extract us from the excruciatingly defined world of madness (symptoms, phenomenology, etiology) and lead us to the unsolved mystery of its mental pain.

Vasilika Pojani: The rate of listening skill integration in teaching EFL. A case study in schools of Korca

The purpose of this research is to look into the importance listening as a skill has in English language teaching and comprehension, the place it occupies among other skills and the implementation of listening strategies by our English teachers at present. Besides the theoretical part of the paper where the reasons for listening instruction, the techniques and activities throughout its stages and listening strategies are involved, this paper mostly relies on the results that come out from a survey conducted with the English teachers of the 9-th grade and high school teachers of our city on listening skill. The research is based on a listening strategy questionnaire, where 50 English teachers were required to complete it considering the place listening occupies in their English teaching classes and the frequency of different activities and techniques used in listening process. The results of the survey indicate that there is still more to be done by teachers of English on listening teaching in general and its strategies in particular to successfully  listen and effectively improve students’ ability in comprehension.


Suela Pici (Koҫa): A Comparative Insight into English and Albanian Set Phrases

It is well known that speakers do not use words in isolation but within the frame of discourse. Words vary their meanings according to different collocations they have in discourse at the moment they are used. When these collocations are lexicalized they become set phrases (idioms), which have particular meanings in a given language. Because of their particular meanings, these phrases are very difficult to be taught and learned, especially from one language to another.
Albanian teachers teaching ESL to Albanian students encounter a lot of difficulties when it comes to these set phrases.
This article includes an introductory section about set phrases or expressions or idioms in general. Then what follows is a general overview of how these phrases are presented in English textbooks (Masterclass series) of different levels for Albanian learners of English as a second language. Several issues and problems that are related with their teaching will be mentioned and in the end we try to give some suggestions and recommendations.